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Buteyko Theory

" The theory of our discovery contains basically a problem of a survival.

… I have claims to one thing: I have discovered the cause of the most frequent illnesses. It is Deep Respiration. No one ever spoke about it before. This is the gist of my discovery. Neither the importance, nor influence of СО2 on organs, on systems, nor the influence of СО2 on respiration, etc "

(From the record of K.P.Buteyko’s speech at the 5-th All-Union Seminar on Buteyko Method. Moscow, 1990)


Fantastic events take place in the scientific world around the Russian scientist - doctor K.P. Buteyko On the one hand, it is the worldwide popularity of his technique of treatment on the basis of cor-recting breathing, which has even received attention of governmental bodies in Russia (1) and the Great Britain (2). On the other hand, the absolute inattention to scientific fundamentals on which Buteyko ther-apy is based is observed. The authors have not found any reference to K.P. Buteyko’s scientific works in the articles of independent experts. As a result, the Buteyko therapy is distorted beyond recognition and the scientists are compelled to start anew from the assumption that dysfunc-tion of breathing is the cause of asthma and other diseases (3-5), i.e. to come back to 53 years ago.
The reasons for this are as follows. The results of Dr. Buteyko’s researches were far ahead compared with the level of medical science of the mid-twentieth century. This might be a reason why they were not understood. At the same time in the process of Dr. Buteyko’s therapy the necessity to possess a high level of medical and general scientific knowledge was not very obvious for a layperson or a patient. As a re-sult, any ignoramus had a temptation to try himself or herself in the treatment of others, involuntarily parasitizing on the fact that some pa-tients could correct their breathing intuitively and regardless of incom-petent recommendations of their “tutors.” Since 1998 K.P. Buteyko was no longer involved in active work, having had a severe brain trauma, and this was yet another reason why this situation went out of his control.

Due to this situation a large number of “clinics,” “schools” and even “institutes” bearing his name have sprung up all over the world, starting from Moscow and reaching as far as New Zealand and Australia, in which Dr. Buteyko’s pseudo-students, pseudo-widow, pseudo-friends, and other pseudo-followers are teaching new pseudo-Buteyko practitioners from various walks of life, including plumbers and sales-persons, in less than two weeks. Moreover, such “pseudo-followers” were not able even to measure properly the Control Pause and made no effort to read properly his Foreword to books (6-8), having circulation up to 110000, where K.P. Buteyko has clearly explained that “the only scientifically substantiated principle in prevention and treatment of “modern” diseases is the reduction of ventilation in the process of breathing in order to normalise its physiological function”.
At the same time his pseudo-followers have published a large number of incompetent publications with pseudo-instructions and pseudo-substantiations. Their materials were based on the public lec-tures of Dr. Buteyko "for those who have no knowledge of medicine and physics " (K.P. Buteyko). These materials also testify to the misunder-standing of the difference between Buteyko therapy and other directions in K.P..Buteyko’s researches, in particular, his researches of the role of CO2 in organism, of the influence of pulmonary ventilation on the in-tensity of symptoms, etc.

From this point of view, it is extremely timely to acquaint the researchers, physicians and practitioners with K.P. Buteyko’s true scien-tific theory (9-11) and its application - Buteyko therapy (Buteyko Method, Buteyko Breathing Technique). The authors believe that publi-cation of genuine theory will also help medical clinicians to overcome additional difficulties when working with the patients after the “experi-ments” of incompetent pseudo-Buteyko practitioners in those cases, when the patient’s and practitioner’s intuition has proven to be ineffec-tive. Besides, the theory allows one to stop exploiting such arguments as "K.P. Buteуko said... ", etc.
The authors recognize that difficulties of translation can lead to certain misunderstandings, therefore they present both the Russian and English versions of the theory.

I. The basic definitions and terms
The standard definitions and terms will be used in the work, unless the situations of either inaccurate or wrong interpretation or mis-understandings of the theory of K.P. Buteyko are possible. Now, we shall list specifically defined terms.

  1. The mechanism of regulation and restoration (MRR) of any function is surveyed as a single whole, a set of the biochemical, biophysical, nervous and subconscious processes providing the man-agement by the given function, and also its restoration and the restora-tion of anything else after damages.
  2. Disease is a disorder of one or several mechanisms of regulation and restoration of a function of an organism. This defini-tion corresponds to K.P. Buteyko’s point of view (12) and to the both of N.M. Amosov’s and F. Hoff’s definitions (13).
  3. Disease of Deep Respiration is a disorder of the MRR of such function, as breathing.
  4. Hyperventilation is only one of the symptoms of the disease of Deep Respiration, to which any definition from (14, 15) can be ap-plied. From the comparison of the third and fourth definitions it follows that the use of the term "hyperventilating syndrome" instead of the term "disease of Deep Respiration" is similar to the use of the term "tempera-ture syndrome" instead of the term "infectious disease".
  5. The importance of this or that function or the MRR is de-termined as follows. For a function - the more important a function, the stronger is the effect of its influence on health. For a mechanism - a correct work of a more important mechanism can lead to full or partial restoration of correctness of work of a less important mechanism. Cor-recting the work of a less important mechanism does not provide resto-ration of correctness of work of a more important mechanism.
  6. Comfort is a complex of conditions of the vital activity pro-viding maximisation of the amount and degree of pleasant feelings, pleasures and minimization of the amount and degree of unpleasant feel-ings, displeasures.
  7. Civilisation is a combination of a level of development of productive forces and rules of the organisation of the society providing many of its members with plenty of food, sleep, heating, medicines, at the same time limiting physical activity. All this is aimed in its development at the increase of consumption with the purpose of achieving the maximal comfort.
  8. Accuracy sufficient for practice applications. Under the emphasised term, we shall understand that if the restrictions introduced into the theory are observed, then all its conclusions should prove to be true no less often, than in nine cases out of ten. Regarding numerical values of a control pause, this is plus-minus one second. Regarding the pulse, this is plus-minus two to three beatings a minute.
  9. Civilization-induced illness is symptoms or syndromes (set of symptoms) falling under a subject domain of Buteyko theory.
  10. The morals are a property of human consciousness follow-ing from its system of values, which determines decision-making and the acts affecting the interests of other people.
  11. The quantitative measure of morals. An act or a decision should be considered more moral, if it corresponds (or at least does not contradict) to the interests of a greater number of people in a greater interval of time.

II. The scope of the theory (the subject domain)
Some propositions of the theory can be applied to any area of medicine. However, most fully and with accuracy sufficient for appli-cations, the theory should describe changes of the limited set of states and reactions of a person. The basic restrictions follow from the follow-ing assumptions:

  1. The person is in the conditions of the modern civilisation, i.e. there are no external restrictions in nutrition, rest, pleasures, etc.
  2. The person is not in an unconscious state permanently.
  3. Genetic disorders in an organism are not taken into consid-eration.
  4. In an organism there is a certain quantity of reserve forces and energy necessary for performing the functions of exchange with environment and providing the work of consciousnesses and MRRs.
  5. Irreversible disorders of the MRRs, as well as of the basic functions and organs of a person, for example, due to traumas, geron-tological changes, etc. are not taken into consideration.
  6. Infections are not taken into consideration.

As a result, the fundamentals of Buteyko theory do not lay claim to an accurate enough and full description of the basic changes in an organism under the following processes and types of pathologies:

  1. Infectious diseases.
  2. The hereditary diseases caused by genetically caused disor-ders of the MRRs. But the presence of "genetic predisposition" does not limit the application of the Buteyko theory.
  3. Serious forms of mental disorders.
  4. Traumatic disorders.
  5. Extreme states (narcotics, poisonings, burns, radiation, etc.)
  6. Person’s states on the verge of life and death (reanimation).
  7. The gerontological disorders caused by the processes of age-ing.
  8. Disorders in the work of consciousness, unconscious states.
  9. Cancer.
  10. The processes in an organism directly caused by the func-tion of procreation.

However, it is necessary to bear in mind that the application of the Buteyko theory and therapy in the listed areas often allows one to sharply increase the efficiency of the medical aid, due to the creation of
II. The scope of the theory (the subject domain) 57
the general favourable background.
The listed restrictions disclose the formal definition of "civiliza-tion-induced illness" given above. These are only dozens of the illnesses from the general list of many thousands of the illnesses known in medi-cine. For example, these are rhinitises, bronchitis, asthma, allergy, car-diovascular diseases, neurosises, etc.

III. Main principles (postulates)
The following axioms are accepted without proofs.

  1. A person represents an indissoluble unity of physiological processes and consciousnesses (16, 17). These two components are con-sidered as mutually influencing factors of the same order.
  2. It is impossible to help an organism to cure a disease without having determined its cause.
  3. A disease, as a rule, is not observable by the patient. The symptoms are.
  4. About overcoming a discomfort. According to the general principles of conservation it seems improbable to overcome a chronic disease without active efforts on the part of the patient, without the abil-ity to bear the sense of discomfort patiently, without strain.
  5. About an active role of the patient. Only the organism itself can cure disease by means of the respective MRRs. The doctor and the patient can only assist or counteract these mechanisms. Hence, the pa-tient should be the most active participant in the cure process, and an unreasonable intervention in a natural work of these mechanisms is very dangerous.
  6. About hierarchy of functions. The degree of influence of functions of the exchange with environment on the processes in organ-isms (importance of a function) can be determined by the time of pres-ervation of vital activity at switching-off of the corresponding function. The quicker the organism perishes at switching-off of any function, the stronger is the influence of this function on the processes in an organ-ism. According to this principle, breathing has the greatest influence on internal processes among the functions controlled by consciousness, because at a respiratory standstill the organism can live only several minutes (without water - several days, without nutrition - several weeks). The importance of the MRR is determined by the importance of the corresponding function.
  7. About asymmetry of resistibility to diseases. Dependence of efficiency and resistibility to illnesses of MRRs on a felt and/or real-ized level of threat to a survival of species is asymmetric to the range of values accepted as a norm. For example, these functions work better at malnutrition, shortage of sleep, excess of movement, than at overeat-ing, long sleeping hours, lack of movement, etc. Moreover, it is assumed that the presence of the factors of threat to survival improves not only the work of the mechanisms directly connected with this factor, but also all other MRRs. Generally speaking, this principle should be considered as the law from the theory of evolution in general biology. In fact, from the point of view of survival of species it is much more dangerous to be sick, when there is lack of food, when it is often necessary to escape from predators, etc.

It is obvious that this system of principles is incompatible with the system of principles of traditional medicine, which implicitly as-sumes a passive role of the patient, achievement of a minimum of un-pleasant sensations during treatment, etc. Therefore, it will be natural to classify all medicine as two cooperating branches, which can be named as "medicine of survival" and "medicine of comfort".

IV. The basic model and specific formal models
Let us introduce the following objects into consideration.

  1. Metabolism. The state of this object determines the level of physical health of a person in the Buteyko theory. The state of metabo-lism is determined by many parameters, in particular, the acid-alkaline balance measured by the level of acidity (pH), etc.
  2. The second type of objects in K.P. Buteyko’s theory is the MRR of a function. For example, the mechanism of unconscious man-agement of breathing, the mechanism of providing the cells and organs with an oxidizer (oxygen), the mechanism of management of body tem-perature, etc.
  3. The third kind of objects is the processes of exchange with environment. Here it is necessary to include breathing, nutrition, movement, thermoregulation, removing of metabolic products, for ex-ample, the stool, urination, perspiration, expectoration, etc. According to the sixth principle of hierarchies of functions, breathing is the most im-portant of them, though in practice it is necessary to consider other processes as well, with the purpose to facilitate the patient’s process of convalescence.
  4. The fourth, as it was revealed, a very important object is con-sciousness.

Let us characterise now the relations between the objects show-ing the influence of one object on another (fig. 1). The links in the direc-tion from metabolism to other objects of the scheme are rather obvious. It means that if in metabolism there are disproportions and disorders, this inevitably affects the condition of all objects of the model, including consciousness. And these influences, obviously, can have various prop-erties, i.e. both smooth deteriorations or improvements, and threshold changes ("breakages" or restoration) at achieving in metabolism of the certain levels of disproportions are possible. Besides, obviously, the in-formation component is also present in these links. The information component allows MRRs to take decisions about the intensity of their influences.


The links in the direction from MRRs are also obvious, since they reflect the function of regulation of these mechanisms. The link in the direction from the MRR of breathing to consciousness reflects the knowingly perceived sensations, such as ease or difficulty of breathing,
IV. The basic model and specific formal models 61
feeling of lack of air, etc.

The link in the opposite direction, i.e. from consciousness to the MRR of breathing has two components. The first is an opportunity to influence knowingly this mechanism in several ways. A.) Due to giving as if "general commands" of the type "stop breathing", "continue breathing", "diminish breathing", "enhance breathing", etc., leaving with the mechanism the management of details of respiratory cycles. B) By means of mental associations. C) Conscious application of the factors of decrease or augmentation of the depth of breathing (see the following sections).

Another component follows from the 7-th principle of Buteyko theory (about asymmetry of resistibility). Here it is the influence of the
62 IV. The basic model and specific formal models
general characteristic of consciousness called the system of values, mor-als, etc. From a quantitative measure of morals introduced above it fol-lows that more moral decisions and acts contribute more to survival of species of the people than less moral ones. Then, according to the 7-th principle, a more moral person got used to make more moral decisions and to perform more moral acts has a better state of MRR of breathing, which fact is observed in practice.
The link from consciousness to breathing and other processes of interaction with environment reflects an obvious opportunity within cer-tain limits to regulate these processes knowingly (by means of mental orders).

Here again it is necessary to pay attention to the process of breathing. The link under consideration specifies an opportunity to knowingly control all elements of the respiratory process directly, as though "bypassing" the MRR, i.e., according to the given model there are two ways of meaningful management of the process of breathing: a) through the MRR of breathing; b) "directly". According to the 5-th prin-ciple, the second way is extremely dangerous, as it is a rude interven-tion in a natural, unknown to the end logic of operation of a very com-plex mechanism, i.e., with probability close to 1 a prolonged application of the second way should lead to additional disorders in the MRR of breathing, and, hence, to intensifying disease of Deep Respiration. All this is proven by numerous sad examples from the practice of those who studied Buteyko therapy inattentively, as well as those who followed all possible respiratory gymnastics and "pseudo yoga" schools of training breathing.
Apart from the basic model, Buteyko theory assumes also the use of specific models, especially for practical application in concrete patients. The specific model differs from the basic model in that instead of the object "other mechanisms" one or several concrete MRRs are taken. For the replacement the mechanisms are chosen which in the concrete patient generate symptoms of a disease (rhinitis, bronchitis, etc.), and (or) are damaged by the disease of Deep Respiration (allergy, diabetes, etc.). Attentive study of the case history showing what symp-toms and when were observed in the given patient can render big help. The mechanisms active during the concrete moment are easy to deter-mine by means of a "deep breathing test” (hyperventilating test) (18, 19). It is especially important to take into account those mechanisms in which the transient phenomenon is fraught with critical values of the vital parameters of the organism. This can be, for example, the mecha-nism of management of body temperature, the cardiovascular system (hypertension), the mechanism of management of the contents of carbo-hydrates in blood (diabetes), etc. Besides, in the specific model the ob-ject "other processes of interaction with environment" can be replaced by those processes, which are used by the concrete patient (or are rec-ommended by the doctor) for assistance in correcting breathing. These can be nutrition, a thermal exchange (tempering), a motor activity, etc.

V. The factors influencing breathing
According to the accepted model the MRR of breathing is in-fluenced by the diversified factors, internal, as well as external. These factors are very different in nature and are described by a great number of the most diversified parameters. However, there are two common parameters. They are duration and intensity (degree). It is obvious that the result of the influence of any factor possesses an "integrating" prop-erty and it can be estimated by the generalised (in any sense) product of duration of its influence and its intensity. It is obvious also that all fac-tors by the direction of action can be divided into two classes (6-8) - diminishing (correcting) or deepening (damaging) the breathing. Con-cerning some factors the direction of action is obvious. For those fac-tors, where the direction of action is not obvious, for its clarification it is necessary to be guided by the 7-th principle of asymmetry of resistibility or experimental check-up.

Let us give some examples of the factors that deepen breathing: the majority of medicines; ecological factors: household chemicals, fuming from synthetic materials, etc.; from the 7-th principle follow: overeating (especially protein nutrition); hypodynamia (lack of an exer-cise stress); immorality - avidity, rage, egoism, excesses in pleasures, etc.
Further we shall give examples of the breath-diminishing factors which directly follow from the 7-th principle: restriction of nutrition (keeping the fast), an optimum exercise stress, physical work; tempering (making oneself fit, cold-treatment); attention; factors of asceticism - a hard bed, hard furniture, cool temperature in rooms, self-restriction in pleasures, etc.; rising morals, etc.

Among all factors influencing breathing, it is necessary to un-derscore morals, since this factor possesses special properties which other factors are deprived of. In fact, according to the accepted model, the action of this factor does not affect any MRR, except for MRR of breathing. Hence, the influence of morals does not lead to sharp changes in the intensity of physiological processes, unlike such factors, as a meal, physical activity, tempering, etc. Another important feature of morals consists in the fact that restrictions on the "intensity" of this fac-tor are unknown. As a result, such unique properties of this factor ac-count for its special necessity in difficult and grave cases.

The entire experience of mankind over millennia confirms the drawn theoretical conclusions. In fact, all mass religions confirm by numerous examples of wonderful healings that an improvement in mor-als and spiritual perfection lead not only to spiritual, but also to physical health. All the Asian schools of improvement of the type of yoga, a chi kung, etc. allow a pupil to start respiratory and physical exercises only after passing a stage of spiritual perfection with an improvement in morals. Special properties of morals are also proved to be true by practi-cal experience of the qualified Buteyko experts. Thus, in particular, all other things being equal, psycholomkas and abstersive-regenerative reactions (see the following sections) proceed much less intensively in moral patients, they easier manage to correct breathing, their process of recovering proceeds more smoothly, and they achieve in it the best final results. The same effect is observed, when the patient knowingly starts changing consciousness in the direction of better morals.

VI. Measurement (diagnostics) of the degree of disease of Deep Respiration - the control pause
According to definition, the disease of Deep Respiration is a disorder of management. From the theory of automatic control it is known that one of the major parameters of a regulating mechanism is the so-called delay or a time constant (20). This is the time of reaction of a regulating mechanism to the occurrence of change in a controlled system from the moment of a change in the system until the first mo-ment of display of management (for example, the first instance of opera-tion of any of actuators).

The most obvious and simple conscious change in the process of breathing is the standstill. From the point of view of the accuracy of measurement the moment of the ending of an exhalation seems to be the most preferable one for the start of measurement. In particular, during this moment the volume of air in lungs and the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide least depends on the amplitude of breathing.
Now it is necessary to determine the first moment of operation of "actuator", i.e. any of respiratory muscles of a diaphragm, a thorax, a muscle in a larynx, etc. In fact, after a respiratory standstill the moment of involuntary reduction (a jerk or "the first difficulty ") of any of the specified groups of muscles, more often – diaphragm is practically al-ways observed.

It is obvious that in order to raise the accuracy of measurement it is also necessary to formulate the requirements to constant conditions of measurement. This is an absence of the exercise stress, a correct (good-looking) posture - sitting upright with straightened shoulders. The process of exhalation is as "natural" as possible (by relaxation). The doctor can recommend a patient to squeeze the nose to be sure that there is a respiratory standstill. Simultaneously, it is necessary to measure a pulse rate to observe the supply of an oxidizer to an organism. In addi-tion it is necessary to take care of preparations for measurement. This is inactivity and usual breathing during approximately 10 minutes before measurement.
All the above-stated has allowed K.P. Buteyko to formulate the basic way of diagnostics of the disease of Deep Respiration which he has named a control pause (CP) (6-8, 21).

In (6-8) the table of pairs (CP / pulse) allowing standardising the intensity of the disease of Deep Respiration is given. Obviously, it is necessary to consider that the accuracy of this diagnostic parameter can considerably decrease, if the measurements are made during the use by the patient of pharmaceutical preparations, which directly influence the MRR of breathing, for example, the use of hormonal preparations. The practice shows, that the values of a control pause can be distorted by 10 seconds and more.

As one would expect, the values of the (CP / pulse) pairs are very closely connected with a condition of metabolism and, hence, with the general condition of human health. Thus, these values can be rec-ommended for an estimation of the general state of health as the first approximation. Experience of their application has shown a high accu-racy of such estimation. In particular, the skilled Buteyko expert can predict a valid value of CP with accuracy of plus minus 2 to 5 seconds, if he or she knows the set of symptoms. Besides, the dynamics of these parameters enables one to reveal the patient’s mistakes in correction of breathing, etc.

Another important characteristic of control systems is intensity of controlling, affecting, in our case, the amplitude of inhalation. Until now it was not possible to formulate an objective way of singling out an unconscious component in the depth of inhalation. Therefore, the ex-perts of Buteyko therapy evaluate the amplitude of inhalation only sub-jectively, on the basis of their experience and the peculiarities of the patient and situation.

Apart from delay and amplitude any control system is character-ised also by sensitivity. In our case for the estimation of sensitivity it is natural to use the information coming from the MRR of breathing to consciousness, i.e. the sensation of air deficit arising after a stop of breathing. Since the rate of changes at the “input” of the MRR of breath-ing is restricted, for an indirect estimation of sensitivity it is possible to use the time from the moment of a stop of breathing till the moment of occurrence of sensation of air deficit.

One more parameter is the maximal pause. The protocol of its measurement differs in that one should finish the readout of time when the person loses an ability to continue a breath-holding. It has been ex-perimentally determined that it is possible to consider sensitivity rela-tively normal, when the moment of occurrence of sensation of air deficit is less than a control pause, which in its turn is less than a maximal pause.
An additional diagnostic feature of a significant disorder of management of breathing is instability of a controlling affecting, hence, non-uniformity of amplitudes and (or) time intervals of inhalations and exhalations, i.e. non-uniformity of breathing. This testifies to very strong infringements of MRR’s functioning.

VII. Properties of the scale of the state of breathing
The research into the correlation between various parameters of breathing has shown (22), that the time parameters of the system of regulation of breathing can be used for an estimation of a state of breathing as a whole.

Comparing the 7-th and 6-th principles it is easy to see that asymmetry should be manifest in the states of the MRR of breathing. By definition, the (CP / pulse) scale reflects a state of the MRR of breath-ing. Hence, it should be asymmetric, i.e. the values of a CP beyond the limits of "a normal range" of this scale in one of the directions should lead to an aggravation of the state of breathing, and consequently, by virtue of the 6-th postulate, to an aggravation of health. On the other hand, the deviation of the values of CP in the opposite direction should lead to the improvement of the state of health. And this is being proven by practical observations.

VIII. Disease of Deep Respiration is the cause of display of the symptoms named "civilization-induced illnesses"

The cause and effect chain here is very simple. According to the 6-th postulate about the importance of functions a disorder in the MRR of breathing will cause disorders in metabolism. The organism tries to counteract disorder of the state of metabolism by means of other MRRs. As a result, we apart from hyperventilation observe one or several corre-sponding symptoms. The set of symptoms in the concrete patient de-pends on individuality of both the patient and his/her “way” to sickness. For example, a set can include stuffiness in nose (rhinitis), expectoration in bronchi (bronchitis), spastic strictures of bronchi (asthma), spastic strictures of blood vessels (hypertension), etc. This group of symptoms is the protective and regenerative reactions of an organism against a dis-ease (16). Besides, a change in the state of metabolism can disturb the work of some MRRs. Hence, other symptoms can also be part of the set testifying about damage of these MRRs by Deep Respiration. These can be, for example, allergy - disorder of the mechanism of protection of an organism from foreign matter and infections; diabetes - disorder of the mechanism of the regulation of a level of carbohydrates in blood; depos-its of salts - disorder of the mechanism of maintenance of saline bal-ance, etc.

IX. Dynamics of disease of Deep Respiration

IX.1. Acute form of disease without transition into a chronic one
In the beginning we shall consider the way the suggested model explains the development of an acute form of the disease of Deep Respi-ration. According to the assumptions made, in absence of the disease the state of metabolism is close to normal. Conscious management of breathing is absent. The MRR of breathing compensates for small devia-tions in the state of metabolism caused by the dynamics of usual vital functions.
Let us assume now that there took place "an extraordinary event" that caused a significant deviation of the state of metabolism from normal, such that the MRR of breathing does not cope with such deviation. The prolonged or intensive effect on breathing of such fac-tors, as poisoning, overworking, overcooling or overheating, strong stress, infection, etc. can serve as examples of such "extraordinary events". As a result, other MRRs can join in, influencing the state of metabolism. More often this is expressed in a striking display of such symptoms as stuffiness in nose (rhinitis), a plentiful expectoration, coughs, etc. If the disorders of MRR have not occurred, then after the factors of an "extraordinary event" stop their action, the state of metabo-lism will be back to normal by joint efforts of MRRs, and the symptoms will disappear, i.e. the person will recover.

IX.2. Chronic form of the disease of Deep Respiration.
The law. The chronic form of "civilization-induced illness" is impossible without disorder of the MRR of breathing.
Let us prove this statement using the method of "contradiction". We shall assume the opposite, i.e. the disorders in the MRR of breathing are absent, and the chronic form of the disease is caused by disorder in any other MRR. From the 6-th principle of the hierarchy of functions and the accepted model of functioning of an organism of the person it follows that the MRR of breathing is the most important among others. Hence, correct work of a more important MRR will lead to restoration of a less important MRR. As a result, the person will recover and the chronic form of the disease is impossible, i.e. we have obtained the con-tradiction. Thus, the statement is proven.

The experimental data completely confirm this law, not only in the practice of application of Buteyko therapy, but also by independent research. Thus, the presence of such symptoms of the disease of Deep Respiration as hyperventilation in patients with ischemic heart disease and essential arterial hypertension was checked (23). It has appeared that the frequency of this accompanying symptom constitutes 94 to 100 %. It is obvious that from the point of view of practice such accuracy is more than sufficient.

How then from the acute form of the disease its chronic form can develop? According to the given model there exist only three ways of the development of the acute form of the disease into a chronic one. The first is due to a great intensity or duration of "an extraordinary event", such that the disorders originate in the MRR of breathing. The second is due to the modern "civilised" way of life under which the breath-deepening factors prevail. The third way is also widespread in a "civilised society", and it is connected with an unreasonable interven-tion in the work of MRRs. In fact, under the acute form of the disease, the involvement of mechanisms of the lower level generates such un-pleasant symptoms, as stuffiness in nose, an expectoration in bronchi, and consequently, desire to cough, vasospasms - a headache, etc. The desire of the patient and the doctor to get rid of such symptoms, which corresponds to the social request for "medicine of comfort", leads to the application of symptomatic preparations which, reducing the symptoms, interfere with the work of MRR, i.e. of true convalescence. It increases the duration and value of deviation from the norm of the state of me-tabolism. It sharply increases the probability of occurrence of disorders in the MRR of breathing, hence, the transformation of the acute form of the disease into a chronic one. Moreover, the majority of symptomatic preparations directly negatively influence the MRR of breathing. As a result, after a prolonged (about a month or more) application of symp-tomatic preparations with standard dosages the probability of the devel-opment of the acute form of the disease of Deep Respiration into a chronic one approaches to 1.

IX.3. Stages of the disease of Deep Respiration (zones of sta-bility).
We shall consider the dependence of efficiency of any MRR on a degree of disorder of metabolism. It is obvious that such dependence will be, first, non-linear, secondly, will be limited by the value. It is also obvious that if the degree of disorders in metabolism continues to increase after achieving a maximum of efficiency, then the decrease of efficiency of the chosen mechanism due to non-optimum course of some physiological processes will occur. As a result, a non-monotonous char-acter of the dependences of efficiency of MRRs on a degree of disorders in metabolism is expected. In its turn, a non-monotonic dependence of the efficiencies and their "switching-on" at different values of the degree of disorders in metabolism should lead to the presence of certain " zones of stability " or stages of the disease of Deep Respiration.

On the other hand, from the theory of automatic control (20) it is well known that a control system having feedbacks (fig. 1) keeps the working ability, if its parameters are within certain "zones of stability (potential well, etc.)". If the parameters overstep the bounds of "a zone of stability", then the system either loses the working ability, or starts working in a new "zone of stability ". From centuries-old experience of medicine and also from the biological principle of survival of species it follows that live organisms (including a human being) possess "multi-level protection" of the process of vital functions. This is reflected in a base model (and, accordingly, in specific models) by the presence of different in importance MRRs. Hence, under some disorders of the MRR of breathing, the organism should adapt to this by transition to a new zone of stability, in which it can stay long enough. Further on, there can be an additional disorder in the MRR of breathing, and the parame-ters will be beyond the limits of a new zone of stability. As a result, the organism can get in the third zone of stability and so on, until "safety factor" will not run low and death will ensue. The values of a control pause corresponding to the boundaries of such zones of stability or de-grees of the disease of Deep Respiration are experimentally obtained. For the adult person they are accordingly 60, 40, 20 and 10 seconds (6-8, 21). As a result, the states of health of a person can be presented in Table 1.


The stability of values of a control pause is understood as abil-ity of the patient to keep these values within the limits of a zone corre-sponding to one and the same stage of health or a stage of the disease within at least a day. The presence of the state "the improved health" follows from the asymmetry of the scale of the state of breathing dis-cussed in section VII.

IX.4. Process of deterioration of health.
At approaching the boundaries of the "zone of stability" the "next" MRRs should be switched on, which have not been involved to the full earlier. As a result, the doctor and the patient should observe the occurrence of new symptoms, which were not observed earlier. For ex-ample, if in the first zone of stability rhinitis (stuffiness in nose) was observed at approaching the boundaries between the second and third zones, then there can be spastic strictures of bronchuses, coughs, either attacks of hypertension or any other new symptoms. At reaching the boundary of a zone, for example, in the case of transition through it, acute display of new and old symptoms should be observed. The acute form of new symptoms follows from an obvious strain of newly switched on MRRs. The possibility of display of old symptoms follows from the general laws of transient phenomenon in the theory of auto-matic control for the systems with a feedback. Even for man-made con-trol systems, their behaviour during a transient phenomenon is accom-panied by poorly prognosticated rapid "wandering" across the space of parameters at the approach of these parameters to their boundary values. Figuratively speaking, the system as though "searches for a new conven-ient place, rushing from side to side". From this also follows that during a transient phenomenon the parameters of the system can go beyond the boundary values (death is probable). In fact, numerous cases are known when a not so old and not so sick person unexpectedly dies, for exam-ple, of an infarction, acute heart failure, hematencephalon, etc. Cer-tainly, the application of symptomatic therapy can "smooth" some inten-sity of symptoms under transient phenomenon, but it increases the prob-ability of "failure to return" to the "healthier" zone of stability, if no measures are taken against deterioration of breathing.

IX.5. Process of convalescence.
We shall assume now, that the patient in some way influences the MRR of breathing in the direction of its correcting. According to the 6-th postulate, the corrections of the MRR of breathing should lead to correcting the work of other mechanisms and, consequently, to the be-ginning of the process of convalescence. In fact, this occurs due to a shift in the favourable direction of the state of metabolism. The effect of these shifts accumulates, and depression of an intensity of symptoms should be observed. And true, the depression of symptoms is observed in the following sequence. At the beginning there appears a possibility to overcome attacks without usual dosages of preparations. Then the more frequent and longer periods of subjective sensations of a "good" state are observed.

IX.6. Abstersive-regenerative reactions.
If the patient continues to correct breathing in a right way, the shift in the favourable direction of the state of metabolism should con-tinue. Hence, the next period of the "good" state of the patient should be observed, when the value of his/her control pause approaches close to the boundary of a stage of disease. This testifies to the fact that after a while at least some of the depressed before processes of regulation and restoration should be activated. And true, such a moment of an attempt of transition of all systems of regulation to a new state comes within one day. The intensity of display of various symptoms grows (attacks of dis-ease). Again difficulties occur in the management of breathing. Besides, the depressed earlier processes of purification of an organism from the accumulated slag, insufficiently oxidised substances, medicines, etc. should be activated. This generates the activation of secretory processes. For example, sweating, or plentiful expectorations, or slack stool, or the speeded up emiction, etc.

Such transitive process from a deeper degree of disease to its less deep degree is also known among Buteyko practitioners under the following names: "breaking"(lomka), "cleaning reaction"(chistka) or "reaction of sanogenesis" (24). However, the practitioners unable to measure CP often confuse these reactions with reactions to withdrawal of drugs or to a hypoxia caused by addiction to breath-holding and "in-tensive exercises". Certainly, here again it is possible to reduce the in-tensity of display of symptoms due to the use of breath-diminishing factors (see above) and the application of symptomatic therapy. How-ever, in order not to lower considerably the probability of transition to a healthier zone of stability, it is necessary to use other principles of pre-scription and dosage of medicines. See below the section "Principles of symptomatic therapy ".

It is necessary to note that at transition to a "healthier" zone of stability, obviously, in an organism there should be other physiological processes (processes of restoration), than at a return transition. As a re-sult, the physiological and biochemical parameters of an organism should take other sets of values, than in the case of deterioration of health. The reaction to the effect of medicines should also be different. Unfortunately, K.P. Buteyko and his qualified disciples had no opportu-nities of a laboratory research into the features of transition to a "health-ier zone of stability ". However, the available information on a few cases, when the patients found themselves in hospital during this period, confirm the registered feature. In particular, by the notes of the experts, who have carried out the diagnostics of such situations, the observable clinical picture was completely unclear to them. The attempts to apply the habitual medicinal therapy caused, as a rule, not the improvement, but aggravation of symptoms in such patients. If the patient started to fulfil the recommendations following from Buteyko theory, the exacer-bation was safely overcome.

From the dynamics of the chronic form of the disease consid-ered above two more laws immediately follow.
The first Law: Recovering from a chronic disease of Deep Respiration is impossible without overcoming of at least one period of an exacerbation of symptoms.
The second Law: At least a partial recovering from a chronic disease of Deep Respiration is considered taken place only when steady values of a control pause have passed the boundary between the stages of the disease.
Since in convalescence the changes in metabolism proceed in a reverse order, the activation of MRRs occurs also in the order, which is reverse to that observed during the process of deterioration of health. Hence, the process of convalescence reminds "a motion picture in re-wind" (6-8), i.e. it is possible to formulate the next Law for the chronic form of the disease: In a true recovering, the order of final disap-pearance of the basic symptoms is reverse to the order of their first occurrence.
It is obvious also that the patient’s state at a boundary of a "zone of stability" is unstable and it cannot last for a long time. Therefore, if the patient declares, for example, that for a long time his/her Control Pause is equal to 10, 20, 40 or 60 seconds at the corresponding values of the pulse, most likely, the measurements are incorrect.

The application of the 4-th principle “about overcoming a dis-comfort” to the dynamics of convalescence considered above allows us to formulate one more Law: The closer to health is the boundary be-tween the stages of the disease, the more difficult it is to overcome it during convalescence. In practical application of Buteyko therapy no exception to this rule is known. Thus, money can buy neither health, nor love, nor qualification, etc.

IX.7. Psycho-restructuring (psycholomka).
Until now we were limited by a "linear" model of disorders in the MRR of breathing. At the same time, obviously, this mechanism is very complicated itself, and can be considered as a certain complex sys-tem with internal feedbacks. Therefore, one should expect that in such a wide range of disorders - recoveries, which is taken into account in But-eyko theory, qualitative changes should also be observed, and they are really observed in practice. In fact, in the course of a disease towards deterioration at the second and deeper stages of the disease a qualita-tively new feature of disorder of management of breathing - its non-uniformity - is observed.

We shall consider now the process of convalescence. Note also that during the application of Buteyko theory for convalescence an abso-lutely new factor operates - a conscious influence on the MRR of breathing. It is obvious that first of all the uniformity of breathing should be restored. But apart from the restoration of uniformity, due to the new factor one more qualitative change takes place, such that it should be taken into consideration in the principles of application of Buteyko theory in practice.

This change occurs usually on the fourth day of the training, and, as shown above, it should be accompanied by a transient phenome-non in the MRR of breathing, As is expected, such transitive process is accompanied by unpleasant sensations, as though the patient had lost that relative freedom with which he/she controlled the breathing earlier. Among the experts of Buteyko therapy this transitive process has re-ceived the name of "psycho-restructuring (psycholomka)".

The essence of the occurred qualitative change consists in the fact that in the case of a successful overcoming of psycho-restructuring the patient starts to notice automatically the instances of the deepening of breathing until the moment of display of the corresponding symp-toms. With reference to the basic model it means that in the link from the MRR of breathing to consciousness a new component is formed. This property is so objective that it often manifests itself even in sleep, i.e. the patient wakes up ahead of time, not feeling any unpleasant sensations, only with the comprehension that his or her breathing became deeper. Thus, if he or she restores the former depth of breathing, the desire to continue sleeping comes back.

The listed laws and a correct specific model exclude unexpected occurrence of symptoms during Buteyko therapy. Investigations of op-posite cases have provided only two reasons. The first: a patient omitted an episode from the case record. The second: a patient did not tell about a drug, which has been used by him earlier.
In other words, the qualified practitioner has the following op-portunities:
- To predict in advance (usually a day before) the approach of ab-stersive-regenerative reaction.
- To predict the set of symptoms, that should be observed during such exacerbation.
- To formulate clear recommendations to the patient for a safe and successful overcoming of the period of the exacerbation.
Other laws of the chronic form of the disease of Deep Respira-tion. The suggested approach allows one to deduce easily other laws of the chronic form of the disease of Deep Respiration, such as periodicity and aperiodicity of display of the symptoms, features of grave condi-tions, specificity of hormonal-dependent forms of the disease, zones of "the improved health", etc. However, the purpose of this book is only to present the fundamentals of Buteyko theory. Therefore, we shall pass on to the next section.

X. Principles of symptomatic therapy
The wrong understanding of the theory has generated the whole series of "legends" about the opposition of Buteyko therapy to medicinal therapy. On the contrary, the formal models and laws, considered above, demand to provide doctors and patients with a "toolkit" for counteract-ing the outlet of the parameters of an organism beyond admissible lim-its, i.e. the means to influence symptoms, or symptomatic therapy. This is especially necessary near the boundaries of zones of stability, in other words, during the periods of an exacerbation or at abstersive-regenerative reactions.. The Buteyko theory does not forbid application of medicines, but it deduces rather new principles of their testing, pre-scription and dosage.

X. 1. Drug therapy methods.
The standard approach to prescription and dosage of sympto-matic medicinal preparations is to prescribe preparations at occurrence of a symptom of any intensity. The dosage should provide the greatest possible degree of depression of intensity of a symptom. It is obvious that such principles correspond to the social request for the "medicine of comfort" and are inapplicable from the point of view of Buteyko theory.
It is obvious that all substances getting in an organism can in-fluence both the state of metabolism and the MRR of breathing directly. Hence, a threat arises to damage this mechanism. That will lead to the beginning or aggravation of the disease of Deep Respiration. Hence fol-lows the necessity of testing medicines by their effect on the MRR of breathing.
Let us pass on to the symptomatic preparations intended for weakening those signs, which are a display of the work of MRRs. From the 5-th principle it obviously follows that it is necessary to interfere with the work of these mechanisms only when it threatens the vital pa-rameters of an organism. As it is only necessary to suspend the devel-opment of a symptom, the scheme of application should be constructed on the basis of a dose, which corresponds to a principle of minimum, i.e. the first indication of effect on intensity of a symptom.

A maximum admissible dosage has substantiation in that the symptom cannot be weakened in such a degree that it loses its protec-tive action. This rule is well illustrated by an example of such a symp-tom as a high body temperature. This increase plays its protective role only starting from a certain value differing from normal, but a threshold of coagulability of proteins limits it.

It is known that approximations of dependences of reactions of live organisms to any influences represent, as a first approximation, the functions close to logarithm. Hence, at selection of dosages of medicinal preparations it is necessary to use a principle of ratio, i.e. it is necessary to increase or decrease a dose not by a plus/minus value but by multiplying/dividing.

From the suggested physiological model of an organism (fig. 1) it follows that some MRRs can simultaneously participate in the devel-opment of an attack of the disease. Hence, it is possible to prevent the development of an attack by rendering assistance to the weakest or most damaged mechanism. From this follows the application of a functional principle in prescribing preparations instead of a symptomatic one. For example, it is often possible to prevent the development of an asthmatic attack by micro doses of Corvalolum instead of bronchial spasmolytic in the patient suffering from asthma with attributes of a heart failure.
If the patient demands a greater depression of a level of a symp-tom by medicines than follows from the rules stated above, he/she should be warned about the danger of the intensifying of the disease of Deep Respiration with all consequences following from it.

Now let us take a look at what goes on in the traditional medi-cine, when conventional principles of symptomatic therapy are applied. By maximally decreasing a symptom’s intensity the adherents of the intensive drug therapy liquidate the organism’s protection against a dis-ease. Thus, the resistance to the factors deepening respiration decreases and the disease intensifies. And in accordance with the third postulate the disease develops imperceptibly both for the doctor and the patient. As a result, in less than a year, the patient’s health deteriorates from a simple chronic bronchitis to severe forms of asthma, allergy and cardio-vascular pathologies, i.e. to the third stage of the disease.

The noted regularity can be easily traced in the medical cards at any out-patient clinic. It is enough to select the cards of the disciplined patients of those doctors who use standard schemes and dosages of symptomatic preparations as the main and basic means.
The application of modern powerful combined preparations continue to produce subjective feeling well in such cases, but the re-serves have already been exhausted, and a minor impulse can be suffi-cient to cause death, especially against a background of the continued propaganda of the advice “to breathe deeply at the sensation of indispo-sition”. Such lethal instances occur more often and they become so scandalous as to draw the attention of mass media. Thus, recently, we were informed about “sudden” deaths of the Russian school children, who ran a cross-country race of an average intensity, and an American girl who got excited because of a kiss.

X. 2. No-drug therapy methods.
Buteyko’s investigations of the role of CO2 in an organism and of the influences of pulmonary ventilation on intensity of symptoms (18, 19) have allowed him empirically to discover new means of sympto-matic therapy, namely, the intensive depression of pulmonary ventila-tion, for example, "breath-holdings", "intensive exercises", etc. The ab-sence of restrictions on the lack-of-air sensation and the admissibility of "direct" management of respiratory movements distinguish them from the means of correction of MRR (see the next section).

From the laws considered above, it obviously follows that breath-holding and "intensive exercise" cannot be viewed as a means for correcting respiration. Nevertheless, they can be applied during render-ing the medical help by the Buteyko therapy proceeding from the fol-lowing principles.
A. From the point of view of the Buteyko theory they represent a symptomatic means of influence on the intensity of a symptom.
B. Their application leads to additional disturbances in the MRR of respiration.
C. It is possible to explain a short-term effect of breath-holdings and of "intensive exercises" by the well-known influence of pulmonary ventilation on the intensity of symptoms (18, 19) and by activation of the reserve opportunities of an organism by stress resulting from oxygen shortage.
D. Depression of pulmonary ventilation has an advantage in compari-son with pharmaceutical preparations, since foreign substances do not act in an organism. In addition, this "toolkit" is always with the patient.
E. Application of depression of pulmonary ventilation is not allowed, if the parameters of the systems maintaining a supply of an oxidizer to an organism (for example, blood pressure) are close to critical values, for example, under hypertension.
As a result, breath-holdings and "intensive exercise" can be rec-
82 X. Principles of symptomatic therapy
ommended only for eliminating attacks of a symptom (for example, asthma) in view of the above restrictions and principles of application of symptomatic therapy. After application of breath-holding and intensive exercises it is necessary to take care of compensation of the harm done to the MRR of respiration.
XI. Application of the theory (the Buteyko therapy)
Medicine is compelled to work with one of the most difficult objects in Nature – a human being. The number of possible parameters and illegibility of many of them grip imagination. So the process of rendering the medical help cannot be reduced to a set of instructions, which could free the doctor from the necessity to think and bear the re-sponsibility for the recommendations to the patient. I.e. the doctor should perceive each new patient as a new atypical task, which is nec-essary to solve on the basis of the knowledge and experience. As a re-sult, the Buteyko therapy represents an applied adaptation of the But-eyko theory together with objective knowledge of other branches of medicine, as well as the knowledge of philosophy, biology, psychology, pedagogics, etc.

The fifth postulate dictates that the Buteyko Therapy for a man/woman is a way of his/her adaptation to the conditions of modern civilisation, where the breath-increasing factors prevail over the breath-decreasing factors. Thus, the patients should consider their breathing both as a tool and an indicator. It means that a patient should be trained to adapt to various situations with the help of the Buteyko Therapy. But-eyko practitioner should transform the theory to a variant, which is con-vincing for the patient, and to teach it to him. Convincingness will be achieved, if the patient is shown a relationship between cause and effect in his/her acts and health. This increases the demand to begin work with the patient during the display of symptoms (an exacerbation of illness), which follows from the laws of disease.

Thus, the most natural recommendation is to avoid the factors breaking the breathing and to involve the factors correcting the breath-ing. However, in the conditions of the modern civilised city way of life the application of these factors is rather limited, except for such factors, as morals and asceticism. As a result, training the patient to correct the breathing by a conscious influence on it is of crucial importance.
It is obvious that the patient should deliberately influence the breathing according to the given theory. Thus, from the 5-th postulate it follows that such influence should pose a minimal obstacle to the natu-ral work of MRRs. Let us consider from this standpoint possible ways of influencing the MRR of breathing:

- To transform drug therapy according to the principles of this theory. The moment of the beginning of replacement and its duration (rate) vary significantly for different medicines and situations.
- To exclude unnatural ways of breathing. Hence follows a rec-ommendation to the patient to try to exclude mouth breathing, i.e. to breathe only through a nose.
- To influence deliberately the MRR of breathing with the pur-pose of: a) levelling breathing, b) restoring sensitivity to air deficit in the case of its disorder, c) correcting breathing by a slight reduction of its intensity.
"Passive trainings" and other techniques are used for the restora-tion of sensitivity. "Passive training" is only relaxation without the sensa-tion of lack of air.

The necessity to control sensitivity has arisen because of a great number of pseudo-Buteyko practitioners who by virtue of low qualifica-tion replace a functional idea of “correcting breathing” by a primitive "increase of CO2". In a pursuit of momentary effect they, instead of cor-recting breathing of patients, train pauses, delays and other techniques unfavourable for correcting breathing. As a result, there occur the de-pression of sensitivity to air deficit (the law of beyond-the-limit inhibi-tion), as well as other disorders in the MRR of breathing.

The 5-th postulate forbids operating the process of breathing di-rectly, i.e. to control amplitudes and/or duration of respiratory move-ments and pauses. As a result, there remain the following ways: relaxa-tion, mental associations and general commands to diminish breathing of the same type as a person gives himself/herself to decrease the rate of walking or running, i.e. without intervention in the formation of partial automatic elementary motions.

The degree of easiness of sensation of lack of air at correc-tion of breathing. It is obvious that the obstacle to natural operations of MRR of breathing should be minimal. Here the sensation of air deficit at the moment of the termination of measuring a control pause can serve as a criterion. I.e. it is admissible to diminish breathing only to the con-siderably weaker sensation than at the moment of the termination of measuring a control pause.

The specific model in combination with the dynamics of a con-trol pause and other standard diagnostic parameters makes it possible to expect changes in the state of the patient and to prepare him/her for such changes, as well as to make exact recommendations for application of symptomatic therapy. Naturally, within the limits of the above-stated, various specific methodical, pedagogical and psychological aspects for training patients to correct breathing are possible; their number could fill up a thick book.

Contra-indications to application of the therapy are obvious as well. These are the illnesses in which the process of a real convales-cence represents danger to life or traumatism. The pathologies con-nected with thrombogeneses can serve as examples.

In (9) the epidemiological conclusions, possible preventive ac-tions, principles of the organisation of rehabilitation establishments, the requirements to the specialist and some other questions of practical ap-plication of the theory have been presented.

XII. About "checks" of Buteyko therapy
Independent attempts to "check" Buteyko therapy (25,26 and other sources) are known. The listed publications show that the genuine theory was unknown to the examiners. As a result, notwithstanding all the conscientiousness of the examiners, they have been compelled to be limited to the examination of the patients, trained to use the therapy by the practitioners, whose qualifications have remained unknown. I.e. the number of "improvements" in the state of health among such patients was counted up. Since Buteyko therapy is an application of the theory, this technique of testing should be recognised completely unfounded. This is like checking the validity of the laws of physics by calculating the number of successfully solved physical problems by a person with an unknown level of knowledge of these laws.

Besides, some tests of an estimation of a state of health of the patients seem to be doubtful, since before the appearance of Buteyko therapy doctors did not practically observe regular cases of cure of such pathologies as asthma, allergy, etc. As a result, to check the absence of such pathologies the criteria based on the comparison with the proper-ties of the organism that never knew a disease are used. Methodologi-cally this is incorrect. In fact, in the case of a wound repair, the conva-lescence is considered true despite the presence of a scar. I.e. the pa-rameters of the organism, which has endured a disease, can differ from the corresponding parameters of the organism that has never been sick.
Therefore the medical science faces a problem of revising the specified criteria for the pathologies from a subject domain of the sug-gested theory, which earlier were considered incurable. In particular, the cases are known when the patient feels perfectly well during the treat-ment of an allergy by Buteyko therapy, the pathology is not visible, but the measurement of the level of eosinocytes shows the values, which are considerably beyond the limits of the norm. Nevertheless, such devia-tions in the parameters disappear, but only after an appreciable time in-terval.


From the logic of the theory it follows that its qualified applica-tion is capable of providing progress in the true convalescence for more than ninety percent of the patients with the corresponding pathologies, including victims of pseudo-Buteyko practitioners. This has been con-firmed by K.P. Buteyko’s practice, by the practice of his qualified pupils (V.A. Genina, P.P. Redkin, etc.), and also by fifteen years of work of Voronezh Buteyko Centre (Russia). On the other hand, gnosiological property of "logic uniqueness" (27), which the suggested theory pos-sesses, does not allow one to remove from it even one element. This is proved by the practice, i.e. the efficiency decreases threefold or more. In (9) it is shown that the stated theory completely corresponds to all gnosiological criteria. In the appendix the proof of the theorem "The role of biochemical processes for proofs in medicine" is given. This is an answer to a probable criticism of the Buteyko theory for insufficient biochemical substantiation. It is easy to formulate and prove similar theorems for cytological level, as well as for neuroendocrinal level.
It is obvious that the given description of the theory is rather schematic, i.e. it may generate a great number of scientific problems for its development. At the same time the authors believe that the material given above already allows independent doctors to try and apply the given theory to simple cases, and also will help to lower the number of mistakes in the application of Buteyko therapy by present practitioners. Besides, the acquaintance with the given theory will allow researchers to continue the work instead of taking anew a thorny path, which K.P. Buteyko has already gone along tens years ago.

It became possible at last to create anew from scattered elements a scientific substantiation of Buteyko therapy in the form of the theory about human health, from which follow all key moments of the therapy.

We hope that this will put an end to numerous speculations based on:
- Alleged "affinity" of some persons to K.P.Buteyko.
- Statements of the type "I heard that K.P.Buteyko has said … ".
- Possession of certain "exclusive" rights, "patents", etc.
- Other subjective nonprofessional instants.
We hope that such approach:
- Will allow exposing the authors of the numerous unscientific res-piratory techniques who have stolen the name of Doctor Buteyko.
88 Conclusion
- Will allow passing to professional scientific discussion of Buteyko therapy and correction of the distortions and errors brought into it.
- Will draw to this therapy new experts aspiring to professionalism, objectivity and quality.

Appendix 1.

Theorem: the role of biochemical processes in medicine
Statement of the theorem: At present time biochemical proc-esses cannot be used in medicine either as proofs, or as disproofs.
Present time is an interval of time, when only a part of the whole set of biochemical processes in a human organism is known. This fully corresponds to the present-day state of the biochemical sci-ence.

Let us assume that N biochemical processes testify in favour of some medical decision Z regarding a condition of the patient or a way of providing the medical care. But it is impossible to deny that in future M new biochemical processes can be discovered which will testify against medical decision Z, and their contribution will appear more decisive than the contribution of N biochemical processes known today.
Hence, the first part of the theorem is proven.
Let us assume now, that L biochemical processes testify against some medical decision Y regarding a condition of the patient or a way of rendering of the medical help. But it is impossible to deny that in fu-ture K new biochemical processes can be discovered which will testify in favour of medical decision Y, and their contribution will appear more decisive than the contribution of L biochemical processes known today.
As a result, the theorem is completely proven.
Corollary 1. Biochemical processes can be used in medicine only as additional information in the empirical decision-making process.
Corollary 2. Biochemical processes can be used in pharmacol-ogy as additional information in the empirical process of inventions of medicines.

Appendix 2.

Some attributes showing low qualification of a practitioner.
• He/she refuses to start your training at time of an exacerbation of your illness.
• He/she allows you to take advice from other traditional and/or non-traditional medicine experts in addition to his/her treatment.
• He/she measures the control pause until the “you want to breathe in”.
• He/she suggests you “accumulate CO2” instead of correcting breath-ing.
• He/she thinks of the Buteyko Method as a system of exercises.
• He/she trains you seldom, e.g., once a week; or training is limited by less than a week’s time for all patients.
• He/she agrees with standard (taken from manuals or accompanying forms) doses of symptomatic drugs.
• He/she recommends taking in hormonal preparations to those who have never taken them before or at least for six months.
• He/She does not aspire to withdraw you from medicinal therapy by cancelling some preparations and changing dosages of others almost daily.
• He/She does not warn you of the period of bad state of health a day before.

Appendix 3. FAQ

Question: Where can I study the Buteyko Method for autother-apy?
Answer: We strongly recommend using only the article (21). If this does not help, please do not begin experimenting, just turn to an expert.

Question: I’ve been studying the Buteyko Method for some months (years). How can you help me?
Answer: If you haven’t learned the Buteyko Method within ten days for a selftreatment, you either entirely misunderstand the Method or are studying not the Buteyko method. If you study the Method with a practitioner, turn to a more qualified one.

Question: I studied (started studying) the Buteyko Method with a practitioner not from your Center. I have such and such question about my health (or health of a member of the family). Can you answer it?
Answer: We do not normally answer such questions since qualified practitioners stick to the obvious rule of never advising pa-tients who studied under another practitioner. Due to the specifics of how the human mind acts, similar information from different people can actually mess the patient up. On the other hand, such advice takes re-sponsibility off the initial practitioner and does not motivate him to in-crease of own qualification, thus doing him more harm than good. Be-sides, it is fraught with other ethical and psychological problems. As a result, the only possibility is re-starting “from scratch”.

Question: Does Voronezh Center have branches in other towns (countries, regions)?
Answer: Voronezh Center does not have any branches in other towns (countries, regions) at the moment.

Question: Are there Buteyko practitioners in such and such country, town or region?
Answer: Recommending a practitioner means bearing responsi-bility for their qualification. Unfortunately, we have no information
92 Appendix 3. FAQ
about qualification of the majority of those declaring itself as the But-eyko practitioners.

Question: The procedure of measuring the control pause in your articles is different from the procedure in books “The Buteyko Method” and “The Buteyko Breathing”. How can you explain that?
Answer: The only difference in description is explanation of the “first difficulty”. The description of the procedure in the books was taken from the “Instruction for Doctors’ Autotherapy” (1984). The skilled doctor knows perfectly well that the difficulty is straining of some muscles. Since strain occurs by itself, it is reflex. Thus, the de-scriptions of the procedure do not differ per se.

Question: Are there exclusive rights in and to the Buteyko Method (patents, etc.)?
Answer: The Buteyko Method is a system of principles and sci-entific conclusions that are impossible to protect by patents or other le-gal means. There are two patents pertaining to the Method. The first one is the “Method of Treatment of Hemohypocarbia”, whose restrictive action has expired (the author and owner - K.P Buteyko). The other pat-ent is still effective; it is the “Conscious Correction of Breathing” patent (author and owner is Margarita A. Buteyko from Cheliabinsk). This pat-ent restricts just one of the methodical elements used for teaching pa-tients.

Question: Where can I find books or articles to become a prac-titioner on my own?
Answer: The Buteyko Method has not been publicized to the extent that would allow completely independent self-training. But, it is being worked on. However, remember that reading the respective pub-lished texts does not guarantee sufficient qualifications. For instance, you can freely buy manuals in mathematics, physics, medicine, and other subjects, yet the overwhelming majority of experts are trained in correspondent educational establishments.

Question: Does Voronezh Center educate new practitioners and on what conditions?
Answer: Voronezh Center does educate new practitioners. The underlying condition is to pass through selection at a stage of studying
of the Method as the patient. After achieving the sufficient qualification, the students become legally and financially independent. The remaining conditions are to be discussed with successful candidates or in private correspondence.

Question: Why do pages of your website have inscriptions on top of them saying V.K. Buteyko and M.M. Buteyko cannot be held responsible for information on the Method and its author from other sources?
Answer: This is a enforced measure. Because some pseudo-relatives, pseudo-followers and pseudo-friends of K.P.Buteyko began to distribute the incorrect and inexact information both on the Buteyko method, and on the its author in the mercenary motives, having taken advantage of his death. They cover own incompetence by legends about special affinity for K.P.Buteyko and about unreasonable "rights" to dis-tribution and teaching of the Method, and also attribute to itself an-other’s merits in development and promotion of the Buteyko method.

Question: How unique is the surname of Buteyko? Who is Konstantin Buteyko’s relative and who is not?
Answer: The surname of Konstantin Pavlovich may be trans-lated to English by three equivalent ways, as But-eyko=Buteiko=Butejko. It is not unique. For instance, one of the Ukrainian diplomats is Anton Butyeko, whose relation to Konstantin Buteyko is unknown. The closest relatives are:

  • Maria Philippovna Buteyko, Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko’s mother; buried in the village of Pervy Liman, Panino District, Voronezh Oblast.
  • Pavel Grigorievich Buteyko, Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko’s father; buried in Bykovo, not far from Moscow.
  • Alexandra Ivanovna Buteyko, Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko’s first wife; buried in Semenovka, Panino District, Voronezh Oblast.
  • Susanna Nikolaevna Zviagina, Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko’s second wife. She was still alive and she was his official wife till the moment of his death. She has never participated in affairs of the Buteyko Method.
  • Vladimir Konstantinovich Buteyko, Konstantin Pavlovich But-eyko’s eldest son to the first marriage. He now lives in Vo-
    94 Appendix 3. FAQ
    ronezh and continues what his father began. His wife, Marina Mikhailovna Buteyko is the head physician-methodologist of the Buteyko Center in Voronezh. Vladimir and Marina have two children.
  • Susanna Konstantinovna Maltseva, Konstantin Pavlovich But-eyko’s middle daughter to the second marriage. She now lives in Moscow and has not participated in affairs of the Method. She has the son.
  • Grigory Konstantinovich Buteyko, Konstantin Pavlovich But-eyko’s youngest son. His mum - Svetlana Andreevna Tolstova. They now live in Novosibirsk and have not participated in af-fairs of the Method.
    Konstantin Pavlovich did not have other relatives with the sur-name of Buteyko. Others having surname Buteyko are namesakes.


  1. O meropriyatiakh po vnedreniyu metoda volevoy reguliatsii glubini dihania pri lechenii bronkhialnoy astmy [About the actions for the introduction of the method of conscious regulation of the depth of breathing in the treatment of bronchial asthma] Ministry of Health of the USSR. The order N 591 of 30 April 1985. In: Me-tod Buteyko: Opyt vnedrenia v meditcinskuyu praktiku [Buteyko Method: Experience of introduction into a medical practice] Col-lected papers. 2nd ed. Compiled by Buteyko K.P. Odessa: Titul; 1991. p. 166-167.
  2. United Kingdom Parliament, The Official Report (Hansard), Daily debates, Tuesday 25 June 2002, Volume No. 387, Part No. 165, Column: 851-858, Asthma. London; 2002.
  3. Thomas M, McKinley RK, Freeman E, Foy C. Prevalence of dys-functional breathing in patients treated for asthma in primary care: a cross-sectional survey. BMJ 2001; 322: 1098-1100.
  4. Thomas M, McKinley RK, Freeman E, Foy C, Prodger P, Price D. Breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing in asthma: a ran-domised controlled trial. Thorax 2003; 58: 110-115.
  5. Thomas M. Breathing exercises and asthma Thorax 2003; 58: 649-650.
  6. Metod Buteyko: Opit vnedrenia v meditsinskuyu praktiku [But-eyko Method: Experience of introduction into a medical practice] Collected papers. Compiled by Buteyko K.P. Moscow: Partiot; 1990.
  7. Metod Buteyko: Opit vnedrenia v meditsinskuyu praktiku [But-eyko Method: Experience of introduction into a medical practice] Collected papers. 2nd ed. Compiled by Buteyko K.P. Odessa: Titul; 1991.
  8. Dihanie po Buteyko. Metodicheskoe posobie dlia obucha-yuschihsia metodu volevoy likvidatsii glubokogo dihaniya [The Buteyko respiration. A manual for patients of the method of con-scious elimination of deep respiration.] Compiled by Buteyko VK, Buteyko MM, Voronezh : Obl. Org. souza zhurnalistov; 1991.
    96 References
  9. Buteyko K.P., Buteyko VK, Buteyko MM. Strogoe izlozhenie os-nov teorii K.P. Buteyko o phiziologicheskoy roli dihaniya v genezise nekotorih zabolevanii [A rigorous presentation of funda-mentals of K.P. Buteyko’s theory about a physiological role of respiration in genesis of some diseases]. Voronezh: Buteyko Co Ltd; 2005, 80 pp., Dep. in VINITI, February 8th 2005, № 185-В2005.
  10. Buteyko K.P., Buteyko VK, Buteyko MM. Formalizovannoe pred-stavlenie osnov teorii K.P. Buteyko o genezise bolezni glubokogo dihaniya (Chast 1) [The formalized representation of fundamentals of the Buteyko theory about genesis of illness of deep respiration (section 1)]. Zhurnal teoreticheskoi i prakticheskoi meditsini [Journal of theoretical and practical medicine] 2005; 3: 71-76.
  11. Buteyko K.P., Buteyko VK, Buteyko MM. Formalizovannoe pred-stavlenie osnov teorii K.P. Buteyko o genezise bolezni glubokogo dihaniya (Chast 2) [The formalized representation of fundamentals of the Buteyko theory about genesis of illness of deep respiration (section 2)]. Zhurnal teoreticheskoi i prakticheskoi meditsini [Journal of theoretical and practical medicine] 2005; 3: 167-173
  12. Buteyko K.P.. Komplexnie issledovaniya phunktsionalnih sistem v biologii i meditcine [Multivariate researches of functional systems in biology and medicine] In: Doklasi sektsii meditsinskoi elek-troniki 9-i oblastnoi nauchno-tehnicheskoi konferentsii, posvi-aschennaya Dniu Radio [Reports of medical electronics section at the 9th regional scientific-technical conference dedicated to Radio Day]. Novosibirsk; 1966. p. 12-15.
  13. Chereshnev VA, Yushkov BG. Patophiziologia: uchebnik [Patho-physiology: Textbook]. Moscow: Veche; 2000.
  14. Folgering H. The hyperventilation syndrome. In: Altose MD, Ka-wakami Y, eds. Control of breathing in health and disease. New York, Basel: Marcel Dekker, 1999; 633-660.
  15. Gardner WN. Review: The pathophysiology of hyperventilation disorders. Chest 1996; 109: 516-534.
  16. Sarkisov DS, Paltsev MA, Khitrov NK. Obschaya patologiya cheloveka: uchebnik [General human pathology: textbook]. 2nd ed. Moscow: Meditsina; 1997.
    References 97
  17. Kositskii GI, editor. Pfiziologiya cheloveka [Human physiology]. 3d ed. Moscow: Meditsina; 1985.
  18. Buteyko K.P., Shurgaya ShI. Phunktsionalnaya diagnostika koronarnoy bolezni [Functional diagnostics of coronary disease]. In: Tez. simp. po khirurgich. lech. koronarnoi bolezni [Theses of Symposium on surgical treatment of coronary disease]. Moscow; 1962, p.42-43.
  19. Buteyko K.P., Odintsova MP, Nasonkina NS. Ventiliyatsionnaya proba u bolnih bronhialnoy astmoy [Ventilation test in patients with bronchial asthma] Vrachebnoe Delo 1968; (4): 33-36.
  20. Besekerskii VA, Popov EP.Teoriya sistem avtomaticheskogo upravleniya [Theory of systems of automatic control]. Moscow: Nauka; 1975.
  21. Buteyko MM, Buteyko VK. Metod Buteyko iz pervih ruk [The first-hand Buteyko method]. Astma i allergia [Asthma and allergy] 2005; (1): 24-25.
  22. Buteyko K.P. Komplexnie metodi issledovaniya serdrchno-sosudistoy sistemi i dihaniya [Multivariate methods for investiga-tion of cardiovascular system and respiration]. In: Voprosi phunktsionalnoi diagnostiki. Materiali Pervoi naucno-prakticheskoi konferentsii vrachei podrazdelenii grazhdanskoi aviatsii po funktsionalnoi diagnostike [Issues of Functional Diag-nostics. Materials of the First scientific-practical conference on functional diagnostics for doctors from civil aviation organiza-tions]. - Novosibirsk; 1969, 94-99.
  23. Averko NN Neyrogennaya giperventiliatsiya i problemi sovre-mennoy kardiologii: uchebnoe posobie [Neurogenic hyperventila-tion and problems of modern cardiology: manual for students]. Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk State University; 2001.
  24. Buteyko K.P., Genina VA, Nasonkina NS. Reaktsia sanogeneza pri lechenii metodom VLGD [Reactions of sanogenetis in BBT method therapy]. In: Nemedikomentoznie metodi lecheniya bolnih bronhialnoi astmoi. Tezisi dokladov vsesoyuznoi konferentsii [No-drug methods of treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. The-ses of reports of All-Union conference]. Moscow, 1986. 67-68.
    98 References
  25. Bowler SD, Green A, Mitchell CA. Buteyko breathing techniques in asthma: a blinded randomised controlled trial. Med J Aust 1998; 169: 575-578
  26. Cooper S, Oborne J, Newton S, Harrison V, Thompson Coon J, Lewis S, Tattersfield A. Effect of two breathing exercises (But-eyko and pranayama) in asthma: a randomised controlled trial Tho-rax 2003; 58: 674-679.
  27. Kokhanovskii VP. Philosophiya i metodologiya nauki: uchebnik dlia VUZov [The philosophy and methodology of science: text-book for higher educational institutions]. Rostov-on-Don: Phenix; 1999.


Vladimir K. Buteyko and Marina M. Buteyko
Scientific introduction to the Buteyko therapy for experts

The scientific editor: V. Buteyko
Editor of Russian text: A. Bondarev
Publishing house: Buteyko Co Ltd
7, pr. Revolutsii, Voronezh 394000, Russian Federation
ph.: +7(4732)554-655, fax: +7(4732)356-311

Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko (1923-2003), outstanding Novosibirsk (Russia) scientist and doctor.
He held a scientific degree of the Candidate of Medical Sciences and published more than 40 scientific publications. He was the academician of the International Academy of Informatization. He was head of the laboratory of functional diagnostics at the Institute of Cardiology of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1958-1968).
He died in Moscow and was buried in Feodosiya (Republic of Crimea, Ukraine).

Vladimir Konstantinovich Buteyko, Director of Buteyko Co Ltd (Voronezh) since 1991.
He is at the same time senior lecturer at Voronezh State University, where he has been teaching since 1985. He holds the degree of the Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences and is the author of more than 70 scientific publications, including 9 inventions.
V.K. Buteyko is the elder son of K.P. Buteyko.
The mailing address: Buteyko Co Ltd, 7, pr. Revolutsii, Voronezh 394000, Russian Federation.
Email: .

Marina Mikhailovna Buteyko, Head physician-methodologist of Buteyko Co Ltd (Voronezh) since 1991.
In 1990 she graduated from Voronezh State Medical Academy, Medical Department.
She herself has applied Buteyko therapy to the treatment of more than 5000 patients.
The mailing address: Buteyko Co Ltd, 7, pr. Revolutsii, Voronezh 394000, Russian Federation
Email: .

Reprint of web pages are only allowed with explicit permission. Please request our permission by emailing us with a complete description of the intended use.

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